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Title: Clinical Pathologic Correlations of Lyme Disease by Stage
Authors: Duray, P. and Steere, Alan, C. 1988. Annals of the New York Academy of Science Vol: 539:65-79 Correspondence: PAUL H. DURAY Department of Pathology Fox Chase Cancer Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ALLEN C. STEERE Department of Internal Medicine Division of Rheumatology Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, Massachusetts 02111. These authors were/are the leading Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) researchers - they also worked with the Centers for Disease Control.
'It is clear that B. Burgdorferi can be transmitted in the blood of infected pregnant women across the placenta into the fetus. This has now been documented with resultant congenital infections and fetal demise. Spirochetes can be recovered or seen in infant's tissues including the brain, spleen and kidney. The chorionic villi of the placenta show and increase in Hofbauer cells as in luetic placentitis. Inflammatory changes of fetal or neonatal changes are not as pronounced as in the adult, but cardiac abnormalities, including intracardiac septal defects, have been seen. It is not known why inflammatory cells are so sparse from maternal transmisson but it is possible that an immature immune system plays a role.'
The citations/references 28,29 in the text are as follows:28. SCHLESINGER, P. A., DURAY, P. H., BURKE, B. A., A. C. STEERE, & M. T. STILLMAN 1985. Maternal fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorfri. Ann. Intern. Med. 103 67-68.
29. MACDONALD A. 1986. Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. A 263:189-200.